Category : Optimisation
What to test with Google Optimize
So you’ve got a brand new tool in your web performance kit – Google Optimize – and now you want to put it to good use. What can you test with Optimize and how does it work? Firstly, what are the different options for setting up an experiment? AB Test Using the in-page editor you can create an altered version of the page you wish to test. This could be a change of text copy, different styling, or swapping in a different image. You can also add new scripts or HTML if you’re familiar with coding. The way this works is Optimize adds a script after the page loads to manipulate the page text, images or styles. I recommend not switching header elements or large images using this method as, depending on your website setup, there may be a noticeable flicker– try a redirection test below. You can create many versions with subtly different changes (C, D and E versions if you want) – but remember you’ll need a large volume of traffic to spot significant differences between lots of variations. You can also limit the test to a certain segment of users – maybe only first time visitors, or those on mobile devices. Multivariate Test Similar to an AB test, a multivariate test is used when you have a few different aspects of the page to change (e.g. image and headline text) and you want to see which combination is most engaging. To get a significant result, you'll need a large volume of traffic - even more than testing many options in AB tests. Redirection Test This is where you have two different versions of a page – or a different flow you want to start users on. Optimize will split your visitors, so some see the original page and some are redirected to the B version. A redirection test is best when the page content or functionality is very different – perhaps using a whole different layout. The disadvantage is you’ll need a developer to build the B version of the page, which may limit the speed of cycling tests. Personalisation Personalisation is not officially supported by Optimize right now, but we’ve found it to be a useful tool. You can assign 99.9% of the visitors who match certain criteria to see the alternative version of the page. An example is where you have a special offer or local store in a particular city - see our step-by-step local personalisation example. You can ensure that all the visitors from that city see a different version of the page. Unfortunately on the free version of Google Optimize you are limited to 3 concurrent ‘experiments’ – so it won’t be a good solution if you want to run similar personalisation across lots of cities or groups of users. Next the question is where to start with tests... Start with the landing pages Landing pages get the greater volume of traffic, and are where small visual changes (as opposed to new product features) make the biggest difference to user engagement. This greater volume allows you to get a significant result quicker, meaning you can move on to the next test quicker. And keep on improving! So what exactly could you test using Google Optimize? Here are six ideas to get you going. 1. Could call-to-actions (CTA) be clearer? Changing the colour or contrast of a key button or link on the page (within your brand guidelines) usually results in more visitors clicking it. This might involve changing the style of the CTA itself, or removing elements close by on the page – to give the CTA more space to stand out. [subscribe] 2. Are you giving the user too many choices? In Steve Krug’s classic Don’t Make me Think he explains how any small confusion in the user’s mind can stop them making any choice. Every choice the user has to make is an opportunity for them to give up. Try hiding one of the options and seeing if more users overall choose any of the remaining options. 3. Is the mobile page too long? As many sites move to responsive designs that switch layout on smaller screens, this has led to mobile pages becoming very long. User may get ‘scroll fatigue’ before then get to critical elements on the page. Try cutting out non-essential sections for mobile users, or editing copy or images to make the page shorter. You could also try switching sections so that the call-to-action is higher up the page on mobile – although this is harder to achieve without a redirection test. 4. Is localisation important to your users? You may have discussed providing local language content for your users, and been unsure if it is worth the costs of translation and maintenance. Why not test the benefits for a single location? As with the personalisation tests, you can show a different local language (or local currency) version of the page to half the users in the single location (e.g. Spanish for visitors from Mexico) and see if they convert better. 5. Does the user need more reassurance before starting to buy? It easier to build experiments which remove elements to the page, but you should also consider adding extra explanation messages. A common problem on ecommerce stores is that visitors are unsure what the shipping charges or timing will be before adding to cart. Could you add a short sentence at the start of the journey (maybe on a product page) to give an outline of your shipping policy? Or maybe some logos of payment methods you accept? 6. Changing header navigation If your site has a complex mix of products that has evolved over time it may be time to try a radical new categorisation – maybe splitting products by gender or price point rather than by type. For this test, you’ll want to target only new visitors – so you don’t confuse regular visitors until you’re sure it’s permanent. You will also need to make the navigation changes on all pages across the site. Good luck! Littledata also offering consulting and AB testing support, so please contact us for any further advice.
How to improve your landing pages using Google Analytics
Landing page optimisation is one part of a broader digital marketing process called conversion optimisation, or conversion rate optimisation (CRO), with the goal of improving the percentage of visitors to a website that becomes sales leads/or customers. Let's see how to improve your landing page performance. There are some things to check when you want to improve the conversion rate of a particular page. In order to get the best data, we use Google Analytics and Hotjar. I will start with Hotjar because it is faster! With Hotjar you will understand what users want, care about and interact with on your site by visually representing their clicks, taps and scrolling behaviour. This is shown with nice videos of a user's journey leading to conversion. With Hotjar, you can see what confuses people, what is not clear and if for your customer point-of-view is clear on your landing page. And now the hard and exciting part: Analyse the data collected in Google Analytics. If you think that the home page is a landing page please read this before you go further: Website Homepage vs Landing page - what's the difference? and this: Don’t obsess over your homepage – its importance will decrease over time! When a visitor clicks on a Pay-Per-Click (PPC) ad, they're taken to a landing page — a web page whose sole purpose of existence is to entice people to take an action. If done well, it could be the most effective marketing weapon in your arsenal. The correct analysis of data can save you a lot of money or even your business. If your visitors donʼt know what to do when they land on your landing page, then you are throwing your advertising money out the window. Your call-to-action (CTA) is the primary conversion goal of a visitor to your landing page. Next, I give you some examples of common actions that you might want a customer to do on your landing page: purchasing a product subscribing to a newsletter calling you on the phone downloading an ebook or whitepaper watching a demo requesting information Let's find out, step-by-step if your landing page is a winner using this checklist. Click on them to find out how to analyse and interpret data CTA(s) clear and unambiguous Do what you say and say what you do Don't be like Trump. Leave the Amazing! Awesome! words elsewhere Less is more Keep it where it can be seen Know your clients Twice is better Design matters Choose what matters the most CTA(s) clear and unambiguous Google Analytics report: "Landing pages" with a second dimension added to the report: "Second page" If you are offering an app access go with "Get Started" or "Create account" and don't say “Get your free ebook” or “go” or “submit”. Do what you say and say what you do Google Analytics report: "Landing pages" with a second dimension added to the report: "Second page" analyses the bounce rate on the call-to-action link. Donʼt promise one thing and then deliver something else or even worse nothing at all (a 404 page). To follow the same example, if you have an app and say "30 days free trial" don't let people click 'try for 30 days' and on the next page provide a PayPal form to charge them for a month period. Don't be like Trump. Leave the Amazing! Awesome! words elsewhere Google Analytics report: "Pages" see how many FAQ and Terms pageview you have. Resist the temptation to include bloated adjectives. Such claims are likely to make people think you are overselling and trying too hard. Less is more Google Analytics report: "Top Events" with a second dimension added to the report: "Page" analyses the clicks on your call-to-action versus other clicks in page or scroll actions. Make space for your call-to-action. Let them breathe visually. Using more whitespace will allow your button or statement to stand out on the page. Colour choice is important here also; create a high contrast between the call-to-action and surrounding elements to assert it’s dominance. Keep it where it can be seen Google Analytics report: "Top Events" analyse the scroll tracking. See how far your visitors are scrolling down If you have a long page, donʼt put the call-to-action below the fold. Take into consideration, the different screen sizes and adapt your landing pages for the most common. Most of the users will not scroll far down the page so be sure to put your value proposition and your call-to-action as a first-seen element in the page. Know your clients Google Analytics report: "Demographics - Language" Speak your client's language. Provide different landing pages based on country. Advertise differently based on specific demographics. However good your product or service is, the simple truth is that no one will buy it if they don't want it or believe they don't need it. And you won't persuade anyone that they want or need to buy what you're offering unless you clearly understand what it is your customers really want. Twice is better Google Analytics report: Combine "Top Events" (for scroll tracking) and "All Pages" for the propotion of sessions with FAQ/Terms pageviews Not all customers are ready to engage right away and might need some supporting information to ease their worries or answer their questions. If you are asking someone to buy something, a sensible secondary call-to-action can be to download a product brochure. This keeps them in your realm of inﬂuence (as opposed to leaving to do research elsewhere) and builds conﬁdence. Ensure that the safety net CTA doesnʼt compete in size and visual dominance – often a simple text link is adequate, beneath the main big action button. If you are asking someone to purchase online, offering a phone number for phone orders can make a potential customer more likely to convert if thatʼs their preferred contact method. Design matters Google Analytics report: "Source/medium" shows the bounce rate for each campaign Carry your primary call-to-action throughout the entire acquisition and conversion experience, from audience acquisition ads (PPC, email, banner, social media link) through your landing page and on to the ﬁnal destination page. Choose what represents you the most (maybe some colours or even the call-to-action itself), you should be able to look at the page and have your eye immediately drawn to the action area. Be audience appropriate Google Analytics report: there is no report in Analytics for this. Just remember your experience when reading an email or a Facebook comment Previously, I said to speak the customers' language. Now I'm saying to take care what they can interpret. Reading a statement is different from hearing it. So don't be too pushy, don't use a lot of exclamation signs, don't use a lot of caps lock wording and be a friend when they say what they feel when they see the call-to-action. I recommend reading this blog post from January: How to improve your conversion rate optimisation and this one: Conversion friendly experiences: reducing landing page friction with psychology. These two are related and complementary to the actions you're trying to take. In the next couple of weeks I will go deeper in each section and show you how good and bad engagement looks like for a landing page. Have any questions? Get in touch with our experts! Get Social! Follow us on LinkedIn, Twitter, and Facebook and keep up-to-date with our Google Analytics insights.
Personalising your site for a local event with Google Optimize
Google Optimize versus Optimizely
Tips to optimise your ecommerce landing pages
Are your ecommerce landing pages suffering from poor conversion rate because people aren't engaging? First impressions are everything, and more so online, so your task is to figure out which on-site improvements will help you towards your goals. Once you start optimising, it's a continuous process of reviewing, changing, testing and refining - aiming to find out what is most appealing to your customers, what they like and care about, what makes them trust you, what encourages them to purchase. There is always room for refinements so here are some tips on what you should consider when reviewing your pages. What are you trying to achieve? Before starting testing and implementing the changes on your landing pages, you have to be clear about what you want to accomplish. Whilst the end goal for an online store is to increase sales, at times you might also want to get more sign ups, or improve views of or engagement with product pages. Think about what success will look like as that will help with planning your optimisation tests. How are you going to measure it? If you are clear about what you are trying to achieve, it will be easier to set measurable targets. Are you looking to increase your sales by 10% or pageviews of products by 15%? Or maybe you want your potential customers to browse further and spend more time reading content? Further engagement can also be demonstrated by the site visitor scrolling down the page if you have long product or category pages. In which case you'll want to track how far down the page they get to. I believe in keeping reporting straightforward so when testing focus on tracking important metrics only. Ideally just one if you can, or a few if you have to, but that will help focus on measuring what is most important for your business at the time. Assuming you are using Google Analytics, like most of people looking after digital performance, set up goals to monitor how customers are converting. Our web-based software also makes it easy to keep track of on-site changes are by reporting on changes in trends, goals, pages. Who are you targeting? User-focussed content is more effective at engaging your customers and improving your conversion rates. So you should write up your customer personas to be clear about who you are targeting with landing pages. This also applies to general look and feel of your ecommerce site. Most importantly, include with personas what problems your customers are trying to solve or what they are trying to achieve. Once your team knows who your ideal or typical customers are, then it will be easier to focus on creating more relevant and engaging content on those pages. Do you have a clear value proposition? Value proposition explains why you’re better than or different from your competitors, and what you can deliver that they can’t. When writing it up, focus on benefits not features. It’s not always about the product looking top notch (unless you’re the industry or company where that matters of course) so it is more about how you can alleviate their problem. Check out how to write your value proposition by following Geoffrey Moore’s model. Does your copy reflect your value proposition? Once you have your customer personas and value proposition, review existing content on the site against how you describe what your clients are looking for. Check if it fits with what they are looking for, explains how you can solve their problems or fulfill their desires. The copy on your site has to reflect how you can improve your potential customers lives through what you offer. A great copy informs, compels, captivates, reflects what people search for and promotes key benefits. Econsultancy have compiled a great set of advice from experts on writing copy for product pages. Also, check out Copyblogger Demian Farnworth’s articles for superb advice on writing copy. Have you found your winning call to action? This is very important – test your call to action until you find the best performing one. Your call to action is like a visual sign that guides the buyer towards a specific action you want them to complete. Different things work for different sites. Start off with trying simple changes like different text, colour, shape, size or placement of the button to figure out what is most effective for your page. If small changes aren’t helping, then try a more drastic change of the button or page. Do your pages load fast? This is pretty self-explanatory. Slow page loading speed might drive your potential customers away from your online shop, so you should regularly check whether they can view your products within 3 seconds (Source: Radware). If you’re using Google Analytics, you can use Site Speed reports to check how you’re performing and get advice on where to improve. If you don’t have Google Analytics, you can use their online tool PageSpeed Insights. Other tool worth checking out is GTMetrix where you can grade your site's speed performance and get a list of recommendations. Do you need to optimise for mobile? It’s a very common fact that more and more people are using mobile devices to browse and buy online. But unless you have unlimited budget for ensuring that your ecommerce site is optimised for mobile, it is best to check in Google Analytics first whether you need to do it now. If you go to Google Analytics > Audience > Mobile > Overview report, you will get a breakdown of device categories that buyers are using to visit your online store. Here you can see that the majority of customers, almost 93% are using desktop so in this case (assuming you have a limited budget) you might want to make sure you have a responsive site at the very minimum, and leave a full optimisation for mobile device for later when there is a sufficient need. Now, if results were different and let’s say you had 60% of people visiting your site via mobile devices, then you would want to ensure that they’re getting the best experience on their device and don’t leave the site to buy from a competitor instead. Are your test results statistically significant? Evaluating your AB test results isn't quite as simple as looking at the highest conversion rate for each test, which would be an incorrect way to interpret the outcome. You want to be confident that results are conclusive and changes you tested will indeed improve your conversion rates (or not, depending on the outcome of testing). That's where statistical significance comes in. It gives you assurance about the results of your tests whilst taking into consideration your sample size and how confident you want to be about the importance of the results. By reaching over 95% statistical confidence in testing results, you can be sure that the winning variation performed better due to actually being an improved version, and not simply due to change. You can easily find a calculator online that tells you if your AB testing results were statistically significant and you should conclude the test or not - for example, try the calculator by Kissmetrics or Peakconversion. There is no one winning formula for how to make your pages more effective, but you have to be pro-active to figure out what they are - so keep testing until you do. Have any questions? Leave a comment below or get in touch with our experts! Image Credit: Stocksnap.io
How to calculate your marketing ROI
Are you running campaigns in AdWords, Facebook or on another advertising platform? Do you know whether your marketing efforts are paying off and which channels you should keep investing in to increase your product sales? As marketers face more and more pressure to demonstrate that their activities are contributing towards the profit, there is a bigger need for you to be able to show your decisions yield positive results. But if a particular channel or campaign is doing the opposite and causing your business losses, then the sooner you figure that out, the quicker you'll be able to adjust your further marketing plans. That’s where calculating and tracking your ROI becomes important. By being able to figure out how much you make from investing into a particular campaign or channel, you can figure out where to focus your budget. Whilst it’s difficult to compare the performance of specific marketing tactics across every single industry and company, there are interesting conclusions that have come out from market research. As reported by Web Strategies Inc., the top 3 channels that generated the best ROI were email marketing, SEO / organic search and content marketing. Email marketing has also been reported elsewhere to give the best ROI (source: Campaign Monitor), but you should focus on figuring out the correct ROI for your marketing activities and, based on that, decide which ones work for you best. Further reading: What is CRO, conversion optimisation, for ecommerce? Image Credit: Image courtesy of Maialisa at Pixabay
What is CRO, conversion rate optimisation, for ecommerce?
If you run or work in an ecommerce business, you will always be looking for ways to increase your sales. So CRO or conversion rate optimisation is one of the key metrics you should care about - review and improve it. Are potential buyers leaving your online store before purchasing products? Have you looked at the potential reasons why they may be leaving and ways to improve the number of visitors who end up buying? Increasing that number of people who complete the main action, or convert, is called conversion rate optimisation. Some of the reasons why more people are not buying your products could be: product pages are loading too slowly not enough information provided about the product your ecommerce site has poor navigation information about delivery and returns costs is too confusing/difficult to find need more time to think before committing to a purchase In the video below, Edward gives an overview of CRO and talks through some examples of tests you could be running to find out how to improve your conversion rate. *This video is part of ISDI online training courses for digital professionals. Video transcription so one of the important things, if you're going to increase your return on investment of marketing campaign, is to think about how users engage with your page and this is typically called conversion rate optimisation or increasing the percentage of people who land on the page or visit the page to those that do the main action let's look at this example which is a very generic e-commerce product page as you can see the very obvious call to action, which is highlighted, is to click the Buy button to add it to cart if we get a marketing campaign to push people to page let's say the product here is some pink shoes and our campaign says buy pink shoes we are wasting money that's never going to have a positive return on investment if people out on the page and don't even like the content they don't engage with it so we need to measure very carefully what is the bounce rate of our landing page, and the bounce rate is the percent of people who land on the page and then go away with them without doing any further action and conversion rate optimisation is really the process through which you might go to get more people to convert - in this case to click Buy so we might look at the text on the page the heading could we change the copy to make it more engaging or to make it more fitting with the users expectations so if we advertise for pink shoes this better say pink shoes somewhere in the copy the next thing we'll optimise is the image - is it appealing, is it easy to see what the product is, maybe we might add a 3d visualisation animation of the product for them to get a better feel for it and then we might experiment with a Buy button itself - how about making it bigger or make it red this might seem really trivial but you'd be amazed the difference in conversion between let's say a blue button and a red button, so altogether we can run a series of tests in the next chapter, we're going to look at a series of tests you might run to test those things but the process of doing it is conversion rate optimisation and that's really going to help you boost that return investment from any given marketing campaign Have any questions? Get in touch with our experts! Get Social! Follow us on LinkedIn, Twitter, and Facebook and keep up-to-date with our Google Analytics insights.
How to use Enhanced Ecommerce in Google Analytics to optimise product listings
Ecommerce reporting in Google Analytics is typically used to measure checkout performance or product revenue. However, by analysing events at the top of the funnel, we can see which products need better images, descriptions or pricing to improve conversion. Space on product listing pages is a valuable commodity, and products which get users to click on them – but don’t then result in conversion – need to be removed or amended. Equally, products that never get clicked within the list may need tweaking. Littledata ran this analysis for a UK retailer with Google Analytics Enhanced Ecommerce installed. The result was a scatter plot of product list click-through-rate (CTR) – in this case, based on the ratio of product detail views to product listing views – versus product add-to-cart rate. For this retailer, it was only possible to buy a product from the detail page. We identified three problem categories of product, away from the main cluster: Quick sellers: these had an excellent add-to-cart rate, but did not get enough list clicks. Many of them were upsell items, and should be promoted as ‘you may also like this’. Poor converters: these had high click-through rates, but did not get added to cart. Either the product imaging, description or features need adjusting. Non-starters: never get clicked on within the list. Either there are incorrectly categorised, or the thumbnail/title doesn’t appeal to the audience. They need to be amended or removed. How we did it Step 1 - Build a custom report in GA We need three metrics for each product name (or SKU) - product list views, product detail views and product add to carts - and then add 'product' as a dimension. Step 2 - Export the data into Excel Google Analytics can't do the statistical functional we need, so Excel is our favoured tool. Pick a decent time series (we chose the last three months) and export. Step 3 - Calculate List > Detail click through This website is not capturing Product List CTR as a separate metric in GA, so we need to calculate as Product Detail Views divided by Product List Views. However, our function will ignore products where there were less than 300 list views, where the rate is too subject to chance. Step 4 - Calculate Detail > Add to Cart rate Here we need to calculate Product Adds to Cart divided by Product Detail Views. Again, our function will ignore products where there were less than 200 detail views. Step 5 - Exclude outliers We will use an upper and lower bound of the median +/- three standard deviations to remove improbable outliers (most likely from tracking glitches). First we calculate the median ( =MEDIAN(range) ) and the standard deviation for the population ( =STDEV.P(range) ). Then we can write a formula to filter out all those outside of the range. Step 6 - Plot the data Using the scatter plot type, we specify List > Detail rate as the X axis and Detail > Add to Cart as the Y axis. The next step would be to weight this performance by margin contribution: some poor converters may be worth keeping because the few sales they generate are high margin. If you are interested in setting up Enhanced Ecommerce to get this kind of data or need help with marketing analytics then please get in contact. Get Social! Follow us on LinkedIn, Twitter, and Facebook and keep up-to-date with our Google Analytics insights.
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